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SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES

V. G. TRUKHANOVSKY. Peaceful Co-existence in Action

The article briefly examines the elaboration by V. I. Lenin and the Soviet Communist Party of the cardinal principles of Soviet foreign policy - the principle of proletarian internationalism and the principle of the peaceful co-existence of states with different social systems, as well as the basic content of the Peace Programme put forward by the 24th Congress of the CPSU. The author focusses attention on graphically illustrating the unflagging efforts made by the Soviet Union to implement this far-reaching programme. The article highlights the indefatigable multifaceted activity carried on by the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Soviet government in the sphere of foreign policy with the aim of making irreversible the present turn from the futile cold war policy to reasonable forms of international relations founded on the principle of peaceful co-existence of states with differing social systems.

I. V. DUDIN'SKY. Socialist Economic Integration and the Development of the Socialist World System

The main purpose of the article is to show the interconnection and organic unity of the process of socialist economic integration with the general line of progress characteristic of the entire system of world socialism and to bring out the beneficent influence of integration on the whole system of world-wide economic and political relations. The article examines in detail the historical prerequisites of socialist economic integration, its underlying essence, prospects of development, the basic features that distinguish integration of socialist countries from the system of integration typical of the capitalist states. Much attention is devoted by the author to illustrating the multifaceted and beneficial influence exerted by integration processes on the development of the national economies of the socialist states.

V. Z. DROBIZHEV, A. K. SOKOLOV. The Principal Social Traits of the Working Class in Soviet Russia

The article reveals the principal social traits of the workers in Soviet Russia in 1918. The authors draw their conclusions from the results of repeated computerized processing of the initial data furnished by the professional census taken in 1918. The article gives a comprehensive characteristic of the industrial and professional structure of the working class, the degree of its connection with. agriculture, the classification of workers according to length of service, qualifications and educational level. Taken as a whole, these statistical data confirm the conclusion that by 1918 the proletariat of Soviet Russia retained its main cadres which had gone through the school of three revolutions. The overwhelming majority of the workers employed in industry at that period were hereditary proletarians, with only quite insignificant groups maintaining links with agriculture. During the years of the revolution the organization and unity of the working class increased substantially and the ideological and political cohesion of its ranks was further enhanced.

стр. 221


G. S. AKIMOVA. The Russian Bourgeoisie in the Years of the First World War (the Zemgor's Activity)

The General Army Supply Committee (the Zemgor) was a bourgeois-landlord organization set up in July 1915 for the purpose of rendering assistance to the tsarist government in organizing military economy. The article shows that the emergence and activity of the Zemgor within the framework of the bureaucratic system established in Russia by the autocratic regime was a component part of the general process marked by the growing influence of the bourgeoisie and capitalist landowners in the life of the country during the years of the first world war. The principal function of the Zemgor was to supply the army with armaments, ammunition and other military equipment. It has to be noted, however, that the Zemgor failed to justify the hopes reposed in it as a supplier of the war department. During the reign of the Provisional Government the nature of the Zemgor's activity changed substantially under the influence of important home policy factors but its essence as a bourgeois institution remained unchanged. After the victory of the Great October Socialist Revolution the Zemgor tried to adapt itself to the new conditions, but its leaders continued to remain active defenders of the interests of the bourgeoisie. It was precisely for this reason that the Zemgor was abolished in March 1918, although some of its agencies were subsequently used in organizing individual sections and departments of the Supreme Council of National Economy.

L. S. CIKOLINI. From the History of 16th-Century Italian Political Thought

The article analyzes "La citte felice" - one of the early works produced in 1553 by the prominent Italian Neoplatonic philosopher Francesco Patrizi da Cherso - in which Patrizi depicts a state for the elite (rulers, priests and warriors), excluding from the category of full-fledged citizens all wording people, toiling peasants, artisans and even merchants, and justifying the continued existence of exploitation. Patrizi fully shared one of the features characteristic of the slaveowning and feudal societies-contemptuous attitude towards physical labour as something beyond human dignity, as a veritable curse. But the world outlook of Patrizi (as of most 16th-century thinkers) was contradictory. Side by side with reactionary views he expressed some positive ideas. The state he portrays in his book is secular in character. Patrizi dreamed of a full-blooded life on Earth, of the full satisfaction of the physical and spiritual requirements of men, of the burgeoning of their vital energies and abilities, all of which was objectively directed against the theological ideals implanted by the church in the Middle Ages.

Z. V. UDALTSOVA, K. A. OSIPOVA. The Specific Features of Feudalism in Byzantium

The authors make an attempt to bring out the general and the specific in the development of feudal relations in Byzantium, to find out how the basic regularities governing the development of the feudal formation on Byzantine soil manifested themselves and what specific features of the feudal system emerged there as distinct from the other parts of the world. Among the most important peculiarities of Byzantine feudal society the authors consider the protracted existence in the empire of the free peasant commune, the centralized state and centralized forms of exploitation. Both these factors hampered the development of the feudal patrimony, the formation of feudal hierarchy, the system of vassal dependence and diverse feudal institutions. All these features distinguished the feudal system in Byzantium from the classic forms of feudalism prevailing in Western Europe.

Orphus

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